International Labor Organization (ILO) : World Social Protection Report 2020-22
Social protection is defined as a set of policies and programs that serve the following purposes:
- Reducing poverty and vulnerability by promoting efficient labor markets.
- Protect people from danger and increase their ability to protect themselves from risk and loss of income.
- Social security includes access to health care and income protection measures, especially relating to old age, unemployment, illness, disability, maternity, etc.
Key findings of the report –
- In the Asia-Pacific region, 55.9% of the population still does not have access to any social security plan.
- The expenditure on social security in this sector has averaged 7.5% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in the last two years. About half of the countries in the region are spending 2.6% or less.
- This is well below the global average of 12.9%.
- Only 24.4% of Indians are covered under any social security benefit.
- This is less than the Bangladesh average (28.4%).
- India’s social security benefits are less than five percent of GDP per capita.
- In the Asia Pacific region, three out of four workers do not have social security in the event of illness or a work accident.
- The report suggests countries in the region to follow a ‘high’ development path, with social security as a primary role.
Steps taken by ‘India to provide social security’
- Social Security Code, 2020: It aims to provide the benefits of social security to all employees and workers. It amends and consolidates all existing labor laws relating to social security.
- Pradhan Mantri Shram Yogi Maan-Dhan (PMSYM) Scheme: It provides social security and old age protection for workers in the unorganized sector.
- MGNREGA: It enhances livelihood security in rural areas by providing at least 100 days of wage based employment in a financial year.
Source- The Hindu