World Day against Child Labor organized on 12th June
World Day against Child Labor is observed every year on 12th June. This day is mainly focused on the development of children. It protects the right of children to ensure access to education and to lead a life of dignity.
The purpose of celebrating this day is to make people aware of the education of children below the age of fourteen by not making them work. In addition, to strengthen the protection of children’s rights and to eliminate child labor and violations of fundamental rights of children in different forms.
This day was started by the International Labor Organization (ILO) in the year 2002. According to the ILO, many children between the age of five and seventeen around the world are engaged in activities that deprive them of a normal childhood, such as adequate education, proper health care, leisure time, basic liberties, etc.
International Labor Organization (ILO)
- The International Labor Organization (ILO) was established in the year It acts as an agency of the United Nations. Its headquarter is in Geneva.
- The purpose of this organization is to set labor standards in the world, and to improve the conditions and housing of workers.
What is child labor?
According to the Indian Constitution, children between the ages of five and fourteen who do mental or physical labor in an industry, factory or a company are called child labour. According to the United Nations definition, children up to the age of 18 are considered child labour. At the same time, according to the International Labor Organization, the age of child labor has been fixed at 15 years.
Child labor problem
Child labor is a social and economic problem for a country. Due to this, many kinds of distortions arise in the society.
- Children get away from education.
- There is a bad effect on health.
- Children are abused.
- There is displacement and unsafe migration.
- There is illegal buying and selling (child pornography) for sexual exploitation.
- Beggary, trade in human organs, child crime etc. increase.
- Essential activities like sports and recreation are affected.
Child labor in India
According to the National Census- 2011, the population of children between the ages of five and fourteen in India is approximately 260 million. About 4% of these are child labor, working as the main or marginal workers. At the same time, about 23 million children in the age group of fifteen to eighteen are engaged in various labor activities.
Provisions made for child labor in the Indian Constitution
- Article 15(3): Gives the right to make separate laws for children.
- Article 21: Right to free and compulsory education to children of 6 to 14 years of age.
- Article 23: Prohibits the buying and selling of children.
- Article 24: Prohibits children under the age of 14 from doing hazardous work.
- Article 39: Orders to provide facilities necessary for the health and physical development of children.
- Article 45: In this article the responsibility of the care and education of children below the age of 6 years rests with the states.
- Article 51A: lays down a fundamental duty on the parents to provide opportunities for the education of the children.
National efforts made to protect child rights
- The Factories Act, 1948: It prohibits children up to the age of 14 from working in a factory.
- The Mines Act, 1952: It prohibits children below 18 years of age from working in mines.
- The Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Bill, 1986: This act prohibits employment of children below 14 years of age in occupations endangering their lives.
Other Major Laws
- The Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2000
- Prohibition of Child Marriage Act, 2006
- Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009
- Protection of Children from Sexual Offenses Act, 2012
- Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2015
- National Commission for Protection of Child Rights
Source – The Hindu