Question – Describe the causes for the tribal movements occurred during the British period. – 2 August 2021
Tribal movements were carried out on local issues, by local leadership and common people. These movements were mainly violent. These movements were sometimes against the British and sometimes against non-British such as money lenders, forest contractors etc.
Causes of tribal movements
- Forest laws: SuchForest laws were enacted by the British government that prevented tribals from living in protected areas. These forest laws also prohibited the use of products derived from forests. The British government established a forest department in 1864 to control the rich resources of Indian forests. The Government Forest Act, 1865 and the Indian Forest Act, 1868 established complete government monopoly on forest land.
- Land revenue system: The British government introducedstringent land revenue system. In addition to this, the traditions of joint ownership of land of tribals was deeply affected by extension of agriculture in the tribal areas or forest area by non-tribals and increased socio-economic discrimination in the egalitarian structure of tribal society.
- Exploitation: Beggar forced on the tribals by the forest contractors and external people and encroachment in tribal lands.
- Religious reform: Forced religious reform and conversion of tribal communities. The activities of Christian missionaries brought changes in the socio-economic and cultural equations of the tribals, they discouraging people to take up arms against the government. For this reason missionaries were seen as an extension of colonialism.
The area of influence of most tribal movements was limited, but these movements laid the foundation of future national movements.