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Question – What are the salient features of ‘inclusive growth’? Is India going through this kind of development process? Analyze and suggest measures for inclusive development. – 25 June 2021
Inclusive development is a concept in which all the people of the society should get equal benefits with equal opportunities. That is, the development of the country, with equal development opportunities, and without discrimination of any class of people, is called inclusive development. Inclusive development refers to a process in which all people (poor and rich), all geographies and all sectors of the economy (agriculture, industry and services) contribute equally to the economic development of the country.
In the 11th Five-Year Plan, it was included in the Government’ schemes to promote inclusive growth in India. With a view to making development more sustainable and inclusive, it was placed in the 12th Five Year Plan aiming for “faster, sustainable and more inclusive growth”. In the planning, it was ensured that large sections of the population should be provided economic and social equality mainly to the farmers, scheduled castes / tribes and other backward classes. Therefore, keeping inclusive growth at the center, the schemes include the disbursement of benefits derived from high economic growth rates.
India is the third largest economy in the world based on the PPP model, but if we take into account the per capita income, India is ranked 139th (IMF) in the world. India is ranked 62 in the “Inclusive Development Index” released by the World Economic Forum, and economically backward country, Nepal (22nd), Pakistan (47th), is in a better condition than India. Therefore, it would be true to say that India has done high economic growth in the last few decades, but inclusive growth has not been done at the expected pace.
Inclusive development is desirable for the economic and social development of any country. In the absence of inclusive growth, the following effects are seen –
- If development is not inclusive, it does not become sustainable and gradually the economy begins to collapse.
- The unbalanced distribution of income will limit the concentration of wealth to some people, resulting in a decrease in demand which will reduce the growth rate of GDP.
- Non-inclusive growth leads to inequality in various parts, which further deprives the underprivileged.
- Lack of inclusive development causes dissatisfaction in some sections of society and geographical areas of the country, resulting in disruptive tendencies like communalism, regionalism.
PradhanMantri Gram SadakYojana, Mudra Yojana, Kisan Credit Card (KCC), PradhanMantri Crop Insurance Scheme, – Ensuring everyone’s access to basic essential commodities like health, education, food security, electricity, clean water and housing, Pt. DeenDayalUpadhyayJyotiYojana for oppressed poor BPL families , providing LPG connection to UjjwalaYojana, etc. are some notable efforts for inclusive development.
If we take note of the above analysis, we find that India is somewhat backward on the issue of inclusive development. Before taking the country to the position of 5 trillion and beyond, it is worth considering the fact that the uniform development of all sections of society is ensured.Government of India as well as state governments and local governments should focus on achieving sustainable development to eradicate poverty and improve the lives of the people of India.At the same time, through inclusive development, empowerment of weaker and marginalized population, improvement of livelihood of women and skill building will help.