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Question – Naxalism is a serious problem for India. Referring to the challenges faced in its solution, evaluate the efforts being made by the government. – 8 May
It is certainly a question today that Naxalism is basically a legal problem or a dispute arising out of inequality. While one class of thinkers consider Naxalism as the biggest challenge to the internal security of the country by associating it with activities like terrorism and the second class considers it a spontaneous rebellion arising out of the anguish of social, economic, political inequalities and oppression-exploitation and also favors it.
The ideological background of Naxalism:
- Naxal violence in India started in the year 1967 from Naxalbari village of Darjeeling district in West Bengal. The militant movement was called Naxalism in the name of Naxalbari village.
- Some leaders of the Communist Party of India (CPI) came forward to curb the oppression of small farmers by the Zamindars. The names of Charu Mazumdar, Kanu Sanyal and Kanhai Chatterjee are prominent among these leaders.
- Violence is used by some communists to destabilize the state through guerrilla warfare. This is called ‘Naxalism’. Naxalism, mostly in India, is based on Maoist ideologies. Through this, they want to overthrow the existing system of governance and bring ‘Janatana Government’ through constant war.
- In India, where the Left movement was influenced by the former Soviet Union, the Maoism of today is influenced by China. This current Maoism is in favor of creating a parallel government on the strength of violence and strength. Apart from this, for their purpose, they consider violence of any kind to be justified.
Along with this, Urban Naxal activities are also being seen these days.
In the last few years, the term ‘Urban Naxalism’ has come up sharply. Urban Naxalism refers to people living in urban populations who are not directly Naxalite, but they are sympathetic to Naxal organizations, and to their activities.
Reasons for origin of Naxalism:
- The Naxals say that they are fighting for the tribals and the poor, which the government has ignored for decades. They represent local concerns in the struggle for land rights and distribution of resources.
- Most Maoist-affected areas are tribal-dominated, and basic living facilities are not available here, but public and private sector companies have left no stone unturned in exploiting the natural wealth of these areas. There are no roads, no water supply for drinking, neither education and health facilities nor employment opportunities.
- There have also been economic reasons for the rise of Naxalism. Naxals obstruct the implementation of the development works of the government. They do not allow the development of tribal areas and provoke them against the government. They extort from the people and set up parallel courts.
- Due to lack of access to administration, the local people are subjected to atrocities by the Naxals.
- The illiteracy and neglect of development works have strengthened the alliance between the local people and the Naxals.
- Social inequality is the mother of class struggle. Even after independence, there was no reduction in this inequality. It is a great mental weapon for the Naxals.
- There is lack of seriousness, integrity and transparency in the formulation and implementation of schemes made for the public interest of the government, which gives these Maoists a good excuse to incite the deprived and prepare new plants of Naxal.
Efforts made by the government:
- Normally law and order is the subject of the state list, that is, maintaining law and order in the state is associated with the concerned state. But in the year 2006, the prime minister termed it as the biggest challenge to the internal security of the nation, in view of the malaise of Naxalism. After that a separate division was formed in the Ministry of Home Affairs to deal with the problem of Naxalism.
- The government is working on expanding infrastructure, skill development, education, energy and digital connectivity in areas affected by left wing extremism.
- The government is working fast on the plan to build roads in the areas affected by Left Wing Extremism and a target has been set to construct 48,877 km of roads by the year 2022.
- A special initiative called ‘Roshini’ was launched in the year 2013 under the livelihood scheme to train youth for employment in the most Naxal-affected districts.
- In the year 2017, the central government has launched an action plan called eight-point ‘Samadhan’ to tackle the Naxal problem.
- ‘Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya’ and ‘Kendriya Vidyalaya’ are being operated in 30 most Naxal affected districts,
- The government also arranges for rehabilitation for the Naxals who have surrendered the path of violence.
On one hand, economic and social asymmetry has been understood to be the cause of this problem; on the other hand it is now being considered a political problem as well.
It is also said that because our governments have consistently shied away from giving preference to the fifth schedule of the constitution. It is worth mentioning that in this schedule there are matters related to the administration and control of scheduled areas and scheduled tribes. The Fifth Schedule envisages the establishment of the Tribal Advisory Council in the Scheduled Areas. In fact, the advisory council in these areas is a type of panchayat that gives tribals the authority to administer their territories. The council consists of a maximum of 20 members, with three-fourths of the members representing the Scheduled Areas in the Legislative Assembly of the respective state.
It is a universal truth that the system elicited by violence does not last long, and eventually breaks down. On the other hand, the government should also rise above the problem of law and order and make efforts to overcome its basic problems.