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Question – Make it clear that India’s long shared border with Pakistan and China is a big headache for India’s internal security. – 27 May 2021
The India and Pakistan border is an international border between India and Pakistan in the form of the International Border (IB), which separates the Indian states from the four provinces of Pakistan. The border runs from the Line of Actual Control (LoC) in the north, which separates Pakistan-controlled Kashmir from Indian Kashmir, to Wagah, which bisects Punjab province and Pakistan’s Punjab province in the east. The zero point in the south separates India’s Gujarat and Rajasthan from the Sindh province of Pakistan.
Built in 1947 on the basis of the Radcliffe Line, which divides Pakistan and India from each other, it runs through different urban areas to different regions of the “desert”.Going forward, the border runs from the Manora Island in Pakistan to the southeast, en route to the Harbor of Mumbai.
Border Management and Security: India and Pakistan have a 3,323 km long international border. Given that there is a tense situation around the border, concrete steps need to be taken to strengthen and modernize border security. A committee formed for this purpose expressed concern over the deteriorating condition of roads around the border. He suggested that, a comprehensive integrated border management system should be developed in a time bound manner. In addition, coastal security and surveillance should be strengthened by establishing high level coordination between the Indian Coast Guard and other agencies. These agencies include Indian Navy, Central Industrial Security Force, Customs and Ports.
Terrorism: The committee suggested that the government should pressurize Pakistan to expedite the investigation of 26/11 Mumbai attack. In addition, he suggested that both military and civilian policy options for tackling Pakistan-sponsored terrorism should be clarified. The committee also suggested that a review of the overall security of India’s security installations should be ensured.
Jammu and Kashmir: A part of Jammu and Kashmir has been under illegal occupation of Pakistan since 1947. In addition, he remarked that the feeling of alienation among the Kashmiri youth is increasing, due to fundamentalism, and lack of employment opportunities. The committee said that the government’s efforts in this regard have not yielded the expected results. The committee suggested that the government should take measures such as infrastructure and economic development and prevent the youth from being particularly influenced by Pakistan-backed radicalism.
Challenges posed by the China – Pakistan axis on the geospatial boundary:
China-Pakistan Economic Corridor: China is using Indian land area illegally occupied by Pakistan in violation of India’s sovereignty. Although China has always maintained Jammu and Kashmir a bilateral issue, India still has concerns about the internationalization of the Kashmir issue, which is reflected in the criticism of the removal of Article 370.
String of Pearls: Pakistan’s Gwadar port may eventually become a checkpoint for the PLA Navy for large-scale port development in India as well as in Sri Lanka, Bangladesh. China’s growing influence in the Indian Ocean is a major cause of concern for India.
Afghanistan Peace Process: China and Pakistan are working in close cooperation to bring the Taliban to the table, and to exclude India from a political solution in Afghanistan, which will undermine Indian efforts, infrastructure and investment in Afghanistan.
- Challenge of nuclear war: India is one of the most hostile neighboring countries with Pakistan due to China and Pakistan being a nuclear state on the northern and western border. India has an unresolved Kashmir issue, and India has no mutual agreement with China. For this India needs to develop a flexible security assessment.
- Proxy wars in Jammu and Kashmir, Ladakh and Punjab: Pakistan has consistently tried to destabilize India internally, with the support of separatists.
- Ethical Support and Training to North-East Extremist Groups and Left Wing Extremism: In order to make Pakistan’s strategy a success, China provided safe havens, weapons and training to Northeast extremist groups and gave moral support to Left Wing Extremism.
- Bigotry and Fundamentalism: Pakistan has been the center of Islamic fundamentalism and terrorism of the world. It has been involved in many terrorist attacks on Indian cities.
Thus we can say that, most of the sub-traditional threats facing the Indian state stem from Pakistan, although the revolts in north-eastern India also impose a military burden.As a solution, not only will the two countries benefit from the sweet relationship between India and Pakistan, but it will also have an impact on the whole of South Asia and globally. It should be hoped that Pakistan will sincerely abide by the ceasefire, and stop promoting terrorist organizations.