Question – Discuss the renewable energy generation capacity of India. Do you agree that renewable energy may be the only future option? Analyze it.

Question – Discuss the renewable energy generation capacity of India. Do you agree that renewable energy may be the only future option? Analyze it. – 2 June 2021

Answer – 

India is a leading economy among the economies competing for development. High demand for energy is a major primary requirement in this leading economy. Nuclear power (conventional energy source) and renewable energy options are available to meet the high demand for energy. The energy of the nucleus of an atom is called ‘nuclear energy’, while the energy obtained from natural renewable energy sources such as sun, wind, water, earth and plants is called renewable energy. Analyzing renewable energy, we find that it is such a sustainable source of energy that is not harmful to both the environment and human health. At present, due to the ever-increasing population of the world, the cost of fuel is also increasing and in parallel there is a continuous decrease in conventional energy sources. In such a situation, everyone has started searching for alternative sources of energy. In fact, while on one hand renewable energy with immense future potential is becoming the need of the day, examples of disasters caused by nuclear energy also keep coming in front of us.

Renewable Energy

  • It is energy that depends on natural sources, including solar thermal energy, geothermal energy, wind, tidal energy, water and various forms of biomass.
  • It is worth mentioning that it can never expire and it is constantly renewed.
  • Renewable energy resources are spread over a much wider area than conventional sources of energy (which are present in a very limited area of ​​the world) and can be more easily available to all countries.
  • They are not only eco-friendly but also have many economic benefits associated with them.

This includes the following:

  1. Wind Energy
  2. Solar Energy
  3. Hydropower
  4. Biomass
  5. Geothermal

Status of Renewable Energy in India

  • Keeping in mind the responsibility towards a clean earth, India has resolved that by the year 2030, 40% of our installed power generation capacity will be based on clean sources of energy.
  • It has also been stipulated that 175 GW of renewable energy capacity will be installed by the year 2022. This includes achieving 100 GW from solar power, 60 GW from wind power, 10 GW from bio-power and 5 GW from small hydro power projects.
  • With this ambitious goal achieved, India will join the ranks of the world’s largest clean energy producers. It will even overtake many developed countries.
  • In the year 2018, thermal energy accounted for 63.84% of the total installed capacity of the country, 1.95% of nuclear power, 13.09% of hydro and 21.12% of renewable energy.

Why the need for renewable energy?

  • Although oil, natural gas and coal are found in abundance in nature, it is clear from the alarming rate at which they are being consumed that one day they will surely run out.
  • Apart from this, it is also not possible to recover them in a short time, because this process takes more than millions of years.
  • Fossil fuels emit greenhouse gases such as methane and carbon dioxide, which are capable of damaging the ozone layer.
  • The extraction of fossil fuels has threatened the environmental balance in some areas. In addition, coal mining has put the lives of many mine workers at risk.
  • At present, the extraction of fossil fuels has also become a very expensive process, due to which their prices have been greatly affected.
  • The transportation of fossil fuels is considered extremely risky, as their leakage can pose serious hazards.


  • Generating more energy from renewable resources than fossil fuels still remains a major challenge. Fossil fuels are still producing a large amount of electricity today, which clearly shows that renewable energy is still not capable enough to meet the energy requirement of the entire country.
  • Energy production from renewable resources completely depends on the weather and climate and if the weather is not conducive to energy production, then we will not be able to produce the energy required.

Renewable energy technologies are still very innovative in the market due to which they lack the required efficiency.

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