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Question – Discuss the contribution of Karachi session of the Indian National Congress held in 1931 to the history of India’s freedom struggle. – 3 May

Answer – 

The Congress session was held in Karachi on 29 March 1931 to approve the Gandhi-Irwin Pact or the Delhi Pact. It was presided over by SardarVallabhbhai Patel.

Resolution of Congress at Karachi session:

The Congress adopted two main resolutions – one related to fundamental rights and the other to national economic programs. Due to these proposals, the Karachi session became a memorable session.

The following provisions were ensured in the resolution relating to Fundamental Rights:

 

  • Freedom of speech and expression of opinion, right to free association and right to assemble peacefully without arms.
  • Freedom to form an organization.
  • Freedom of elections based on universal adult suffrage.
  • Equality before law irrespective of religion, caste, creed or gender.
  • State to observe secular attitude towards all the religion.
  • Provision of free and compulsory education by the state.
  • Protection of language, culture and script of minorities.

The resolutions that were passed related to national economic programs included:

  • Appropriate reduction in lagan and land revenue
  • Exemption from lagan of unprofitable land holdings.
  • Control on usury and money lending.
  • Improvements in the working conditions, improvement in the living wage, limited hours of work and protection for women workers.
  • Right to form unions for workers and peasants.
  • Government to own and control of key industries, mines, and means of transport.

In this session, the Congress for the first time defined complete Swarajya and explained what would complete swarajya mean for the people. The Congress also declared that ‘political freedom as well as economic freedom is necessary to end the exploitation of the people’.

Conclusion:

The Karachi resolution of the Congress was in fact a document of the basic political and economic policies of the Congress, which remained constant even in later years.

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