Nobel Prize 2022 in Medicine/Physiology

Nobel Prize 2022 in Medicine/ Physiology

Recently, the Nobel Prize in Medical Sciences for the year 2022 has been announced for research on the genome and human evolution of the extinct hominin.

  • Swedish geneticist Svante Pabo has been awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine for genome sequencing of Neanderthals.
  • Neanderthal is a species of human. It became extinct about 30,000 years ago.Nobel Prize 2022 in Medicine/Physiology
  • The research of Svante Pabo has resulted in the emergence of a new scientific study area called “paleogenomics”. The study and analysis of the genes of ancient or extinct organisms is called paleogenomics.
  • Sequencing of such extinct organisms is difficult, as their DNA decays and chemical changes occur over time.
  • To overcome this challenge, the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of Neanderthals was studied.
  • Mitochondria are called the power house of the cell. It contains only a fraction of DNA as compared to atomic DNA (nDNA).
  • Mitochondrial DNA is present in thousands of copies. This increases the chance of sequencing.
  • Svante Pabo also made the important discovery of the previously unknown hominin (extinct human species) Denisova.
  • They concluded that gene transfer from these extinct hominins to Homo sapiens occurred after migration from Africa about 70,000 years ago.

Difference between nDNA and mtDNA-

  • nDNA is surrounded by nuclear membrane, whereas mtDNA is not surrounded by nuclear membrane.
  • mtDNA is circular, whereas NDA is linear in shape.
  • Furthermore, mtDNA is derived from the mother, but nDNA is derived from both the parents.

Nobel Prize-

  • These awards were established by the will of Alfred Nobel. The Nobel Prizes were awarded for the first time in the year
  • 10 million kronor (Swedish currency) are awarded under each prize.
  • Nobel Prizes are awarded in six fields (medicine, physics, chemistry, literature, economics and peace).
  • The Nobel Peace Prize is given in Norway, while the rest of the other prizes are given in Sweden.
  • The prize for economics was not started by Nobel, but by Sweden’s central bank in

Source – The Hindu

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