illegal, unreported, and unregulated fishing
- Recently, according to the Indian Navy, fishing vessels from outside this region have been sighted in the Indian Ocean.
- In the year 2021, 392 incidents of Illegal, unreported, and unregulated (IUU) fishing were reported in the Indian Ocean Region (IOR).
- Most of these events were recorded in the northern Indian Ocean region. Fishing vessels from EU countries other than China have been sighted in the IOR.
- IUU in India is monitored by the Information Management and Analysis Center (IMAC). It is a nodal agency for maritime data integration.
- It was established after the 26/11 Mumbai terrorist attacks.
- According to FAO, 11-26 million tonnes of fish are lost each year due to IUU fishing.
Illegal, unreported, and unregulated fishing:
- Illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing activities violate national and international fishing laws.
- IUU fishing is a global problem that threatens marine ecosystems and sustainable fisheries.
- Illegal fishing refers to fishing activities conducted in violation of applicable laws and regulations, including laws and regulations adopted at the regional and international levels.
- Unreported fishing refers to fishing activities that are not reported or incorrectly reported to relevant authorities in violation of national laws and regulations or the reporting procedures of the relevant regional fisheries management organization.
- Unregulated fishing occurs in areas or fish stocks for which there are no applicable conservation or management measures and where such fishing activities are conducted in a manner inconsistent with the State’s responsibilities for the conservation of living marine resources under international law.
Major initiatives taken against IUU-
- The WTO Agreement on Fisheries Subsidies prohibits harmful fisheries subsidies.
- Initiatives such as the Cape Town Agreement and the Agreement on Ports State Measures have been taken. India has not signed either of these.
- The Southern Indian Ocean Fishing Agreement is in place under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), in addition to regional fisheries management such as the Indian Ocean Tuna Commission.
- According to UNCLOS, coastal states are responsible for monitoring IUU within their respective Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ).
- The Quad (India, Australia, Japan and the United States) has launched the Indo-Pacific Maritime Domain Awareness (IPMDA).
Source – The Hindu