India faces Border Challenges on two Fronts

India faces Border Challenges on two Fronts Why in News
  • India is currently facing disputes along two fronts along its borders. Firstly, India has condemned Nepal’s new political Map which claims “Kalpani-Limpiyadhura-Lipulekh” as Nepal’s sovereign territories. This section of area has been under dispute and this new political map as been termed as “Unilateral Act” on Nepal’s part, according to Indian officials of External Affairs. This map was unveiled by the Prime Minister of Nepal, K.P.Oli; this was seen as a gesture to re-buff India’s claim on the disputed territory by the inauguration of Dharchula-Lipulekh Road,  which Nepal thought to be an assertive claim on India’s part on the disputed land.
  • Nepal with the release of its new political map has claimed the inclusion of Limpiyadhura, Lipulekh and Kalapani within its border, which comprises an area of 310 sq.km and declared that its total area will now be 1,47,491 sq.km in total.
  • On the second front, China has accused the India Army of patrolling areas which are not within its territorial claims, blocking China’s patrol teams at two places within Chinese Jurisdiction – Baijing and Lujin duan section on Indo-Sino border and attempting to “Unilaterally” trying to change the status-quo of Line of Actual Control. According to the spokesperson of the Foreign Ministry of China, Indian troops have been accused of creating skirmishes along the western section of the Indo-Sino border and Sikkim Section by entering into Chinese territories.
  • Matters like these between the countries have escalated in the past but India- China engaged in diplomatic talks to resolve such border disputes. The most serious incident was the Doklam Face-off in 2017. Recently, incidents of such skirmishes were reported along the Pangong Tso Lake (Eastern Ladakh), Demchok and Galwan river nalah.
  • Chinese authorities have cited displeasure at the construction of a road which branches off the Darbuk-Shyok-Daulat Beg Oldie(DSDBO)Road. This construction falls in the Galwan river area, well within the Indian domain of control but Chinese discontented attitude has lead to an increase in the movement of Chinese troops to Eastern Ladakh area. Galwan River area is not a part of the disputed territory and Indian officials have failed to understand the reason behind Chinese actions as of yet.
  • The DSDBO connects Daulat Beg Oldie (at Karakoram base) with Shylok and Darbuk. It was completed a year ago. 255 km in length, it runs along Shylok and Tangste River.
Indo-Sino Border
  • The 3,448 km Indo- Sino Border has never been formally demarcated and has been the inheritance of the British Raj Era. It is divided into 3 sectors- Western, Middle & Eastern.
  • In the Western Sector, the dispute centres around the area of Aksai Chin. According to the Johnson Line proposed by British in the 1860s’, Aksai Chin belongs to the erstwhile state of Jammu & Kashmir while this area is claimed by China as its own as well. The Middle sector dispute is a smaller one and have been formally addressed by both countries and resolved. The dispute in the Eastern Sector is surrounding the Macmohan line; here the Twang tract has been occupied by India since 1951 according to the Chinese Government. However, going by the agreement signed between, British Government and Tibetan authorities in 1913-14 during the Shimla Conference which ceded Twang area to Imperial Britain and hence is claimed by India as its own. The Macmohan line has never been recognized by China and is termed as the impact of imperialist aggression.
Indo-Nepal Border Dispute Area The issue between Indo-Nepal Border
  • The problem of identification of boundary limits in the region is interlinked to the identification of the source of the River “Makhali or Kali”. India claims that the source of the River is at Kalapani, where it is joined by many tributaries while Nepal claims that the source of origin of the river is at Lipulek pass where most of the river’s tributaries originate.
Source – The Hindu & Indian Express

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