Ground Water Reserve Report by Central Ground Water Board
Recently, according to a study by the Central Ground Water Board (CGWB), 1/6th of India’s groundwater reserves have been overexploited.
The latest assessment of dynamic groundwater resources by the Central Ground Water Board (CGWB) has shown signs of improvement in the ground water situation of the country.
- Increase in natural and artificial (rain water harvesting) recharge and decrease in extraction has led to a decline in the number of ‘overexploited’ and ‘critical’ category units of assessment.
- ‘Over-exploited’ units are those where the rate of groundwater extraction exceeds the annual replenishable groundwater recharge (more than 100%).
- 90-100 percent extraction for the ‘severe’ category; The rate of extraction has been fixed between 70-90 percent for ‘semi-severe’ and less than 70 percent for ‘safe’ category.
- An increase in annual groundwater recharge has also been recorded. It has increased from 431 Billion Cubic Meter (BCM) in the year 2017 to 438BCM in the year
- Net extractable groundwater resources have increased (from 393 BCM in 2017 to 398 BCM in 2020).
Causes of ground water crisis:
- North-Western States: Prudential extraction of water for the cultivation of water intensive crops like paddy and sugarcane.
- Western states: limited groundwater recharge due to dry climate.
- Peninsular States: Limited ground water availability due to the inherent properties of crystalline aquifers.
- Initiatives taken by the Government for Groundwater:
Atal Bhujal Yojana (ATAL JAL), National Groundwater Management Improvement Programme, Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana (Sprinkling and Drip/Drop-Drop Irrigation), Promotion of traditional water harvesting methods (vav, stepwell etc.) etc.
Source – The Hindu