World needs new antimicrobial resistance vaccines
The World Health Organization (WHO) has released the first report on the manufacturing status of these vaccines.
The report is titled: ‘Bacterial vaccines in clinical and preclinical development 2021 An overview and analysis’.
Some new vaccines are currently being developed to prevent infection with bacterial pathogens that cause antimicrobial or antimicrobial resistance (AMR).
AMR occurs when bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites modify themselves over time and are not affected by drugs.
In this situation it becomes difficult to treat the infection. The disease spreads and takes a serious form. This increases the risk of death.
This report mentions 61 vaccines that are in different stages of clinical development.
Key Findings of report
There are already vaccines available against four priority bacterial pathogens:
- Pneumococcal disease (Streptococcus pneumoniae),
- Hib (Haemophilus influenzae type b)
- Tuberculosis (mycobacterium tuberculosis) and
- Typhoid fever (Salmonella Typhi).
- Currently available Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccines against tuberculosis (TB) do not adequately protect against TB. The remaining three vaccines are effective.
- The report calls for equitable and universal access to existing vaccines. Along with this, it has also been said to speed up the trials of vaccines related to AMR.
- Special mention has been made of delivering vaccines to populations that have limited resources but need them the most. However, AMR is a much more serious threat than bacterial infection. In such a situation, the development of a vaccine for its control is very important.
Steps taken by India to control AMR
- Chennai Declaration for Promotion of Antibiotic Management, 2012 has been issued.
- Red line campaign has been started in India. The campaign demands that ‘prescription only’ based antibiotics should be red-lined.
- Its goal is to discourage the over-the-counter sale of antibiotics.
- National Action Plan on AMR (2017-21) has been prepared.
Source – The Hindu